Core tip: all organisms, from the simplest virus to human beings, have the same 20 kinds of amino acids in their complex protein structure, which constitutes a diverse protein world. Biology in
All living things, from the simplest virus to human beings, have complex protein structures composed of the same 20 kinds of amino acids, thus forming a diverse protein world. In the process of biological research on protein, we found a kind of intermediate substance which is composed of amino acids but different from protein. This kind of substance with protein characteristics is called peptide. Peptide is a kind of compound which is simpler than protein and has lower molecular weight and is connected by amino acids through peptide bond. Polypeptides have the dual functions of regulating the physiological function and providing nutrition for the body. They affect almost all the metabolism and synthesis of the human body. A peptide contains less than 10 amino acids called oligopeptides, and more than 50 amino acids are known as peptides.
In 1902, Bayliss and Starling, two physiologists at the University of London School of medicine, discovered a magical substance in the gastrointestinal tract that can stimulate the secretion of pancreatic juice. They call it pancreatin. This is the first polypeptide discovered by human beings. Because this discovery initiated the functional study of polypeptides in endocrinology, and its influence was far-reaching, the Nobel Prize Committee awarded them the Nobel Prize in physiology.
In 1931, a peptide named substance P was found, which can excite smooth muscle and relax blood vessels to reduce blood pressure. From then on, scientists began to pay attention to the influence of polypeptides on the nervous system, and called them neuropeptides.
In 1953, the biochemical team led by vigneand completed the synthesis of bioactive peptide oxytocin for the first time. Since then, the research on polypeptides in the 1950s has mainly focused on various polypeptide hormones secreted by the pituitary gland.
In 1952, biochemist Stanley Cohen found that the growth of sympathetic nerve fiber and ganglion increased obviously in the experiment of transplanting sarcoma into mouse embryo. Eight years later, in 1960, it was discovered that this peptide was working, and it was called nerve growth factor (NGF).
In the late 1950s, Merrifield invented the solid-phase synthesis of polypeptide and won the Nobel Prize in chemistry.
In the early 1960s, the research of polypeptides has made amazing progress, and the structural analysis and biological function of polypeptides have achieved results one after another.
In 1965, Chinese scientists completed the synthesis of bovine crystalline insulin, which is the first synthetic peptide bioactive substance in the world.
In the 1970s, the research of neuropeptides has reached a climax. Enkephalin and opioid peptide have been discovered one after another, and the research of polypeptides affecting the development of biological embryos has entered. In 1975, Hughes and kosterlitz isolated endogenous peptides from human and animal nerve tissues, which enriched the content of biopharmaceutical and opened up a new field of biopharmaceutical "cell growth regulator". At the same time, 100 kinds of cell growth regulators were found, which exceeded the sum of peptide hormones and other active peptides in clinical application.
In 1986, the Nobel Prize in physiology was awarded to Stanley Cohen, who discovered the peptide growth factor (NGF), for opening up a new field of wide importance for basic scientific research. Since 1980s, peptide research has gradually developed into an independent specialty, which includes the latest molecular biology, biosynthesis, immunochemistry, neurophysiology, clinical medicine and other disciplines of life science. Especially with the introduction of genetic engineering, many peptides can be expressed on a large scale. In 1987, the United States approved the first gene drug human insulin.
In the 1990s, the human genome project was launched. With scientists deciphering genes, the research and application of polypeptides have become more and more prosperous. It has been found that all the life phenomena expressed by genes are presented by proteins, and genes are the information instructions for protein synthesis. So scientists are looking at another big project in bioengineering, the proteome project. Protein engineering is based on the knowledge of the structure function relationship of proteins. Through careful molecular design, proteins are transformed into new mutant proteins that meet the needs of human beings. People can redesign the gene which is responsible for encoding a certain protein according to their needs, so that the structure of the synthesized protein can meet the requirements of people. Because protein engineering is developed on the basis of genetic engineering, there are many similar aspects in technology with genetic engineering technology, so protein engineering is also known as the second generation of genetic engineering. Peptide is the structural segment of protein and the active gene part of protein. In fact, most of the functional proteins in the animal body are carriers, and their functions are completed by the peptide segments hanging on them. Through polypeptides, we can not only study the properties of proteins, but also provide basic materials for changing and synthesizing new proteins. Therefore, protein engineering is peptide research in a sense.
Polypeptides are bioactive substances related to various cell functions in organism. Since biochemists synthesized peptides by artificial methods for more than 40 years, with the rapid development of molecular biology and biochemistry technology, the research of peptides has made amazing and epoch-making progress. It has been found that there are tens of thousands of polypeptides in organisms, and all cells can synthesize polypeptides. At the same time, almost all cells are also regulated by polypeptides, which involve hormone, nerve, cell growth, reproduction and other fields. Cell differentiation, neurotransmitter regulation, tumor lesions, immune regulation and other aspects in life activities are closely related to active polypeptides. With the progress of modern biotechnology and the development of life science, more and more attention has been paid to the physiological function of peptides in vivo, especially the clarity of the physiological function and structure of many active peptides, which promotes the research of active peptides in the scientific community.
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Chengdu Shengnuo Biotechnology Co., Ltd. has "Chengdu polypeptide drug engineering technology research center" in Chengdu, mainly engaged in polypeptide, polypeptide drug and beauty peptide research. Our zero defect has passed the FDA certification, and now it has become the first-class professional peptide drug and product development, technology transfer, technical service and peptide drug industry in the scale production and export of China's parks.