Active peptide, Hu Xing Tai. Active peptide is a general term for more than one thousand kinds of peptides (such as soybean peptide, deep sea fish skin peptide and sea cucumber peptide).
Peptides are two or more amino acids linked by peptide bonds, which play an important physiological role in human body. The active peptide is called active peptide, which is also called bioactive peptide or bioactive peptide.
Active peptides play a key role in human growth, metabolism, disease, aging and death. Active peptide is the most important active substance in human body. It is because of the increase or decrease of its secretion in the body that human beings have a cycle of childhood, childhood, adulthood, old age and death. The injection of active peptide breaks the cycle of life, so as to prolong life and effectively slow down aging.
Physiologically active peptides are important chemical messengers to communicate information between cells and organs. Through endocrine and other ways of action, the body forms a highly tight control system, regulating the growth, development, reproduction, metabolism and behavior of life processes. These peptides are generally called bioactive peptides. It mainly includes the following types:
Most of the binding peptides of mineral elements contain phosphorylated serine group and glutamyl residue. The binding sites of mineral elements are on the side of the side chain of these amino acids with negative charge, and the most obvious feature is that they contain phosphate group. Calcium binding requires serine containing phosphate group and glutamic acid free carboxyl group, which can enhance the solubility of mineral peptide complex. Casein phosphopeptide (CPP) is the most studied mineral element binding peptide at present. It can combine with a variety of mineral elements to form soluble organic phosphate, and act as the carrier of many mineral elements such as Fe2 +, Mn2 +, Cu2 +, se2 +, especially Ca2 + in vivo, which can promote the absorption of Ca2 + and other mineral elements in the small intestine.
Casein phosphopeptide has serine phosphorylation structure in its molecule, which has significant absorption effect on calcium. It is a natural bioactive peptide separated from milk protein by biotechnology, which exists in milk casein and has two substances. The α - casein phosphopeptide, which is made of α - casein, is composed of 37 different amino acids, of which 7 are serine combined with phosphate group, with a molecular weight of 46000. β - casein phosphopeptide, which is made of β - casein, is composed of 25 different amino acids, including 5 serine combined with phosphate group, with a molecular weight of 3100. Casein phosphopeptide is a kind of peptide containing 25-37 amino acid residues. It can effectively form soluble complex with calcium under the condition of ph7-8.
Its physiological functions are as follows:
(1) Promote the development of bones and teeth in growing children;
(2) Prevent and improve osteoporosis;
(3) Promote the rehabilitation of fracture patients;
(4) Prevention and improvement of iron deficiency anemia;
(5) Anti caries.
Japan, Australia, Germany and other countries have applied it to functional foods, such as calcium supplement and iron supplement functional foods added with casein phosphopeptide in Japan, including liquid drinks, fortified dairy products, biscuits, pastries, candy, etc. The large-scale industrial production of casein phosphopeptide was realized by Guangzhou Light Industry Research Institute in 1994. As the first kind of mineral element binding peptide used in food, casein phosphopeptide has been paid more and more attention
Active peptide reagent
These peptides include glutathione, intestinal tryptophan and so on. Glutathione can be completely absorbed in the small intestine. It can maintain the integrity of the red blood cell membrane. It has the function of protecting and restoring the activity for the enzymes that need sulfhydryl group. It is a coenzyme or cofactor of many enzymes. It can participate in the absorption and transportation of amino acids, the reduction of methemoglobin and the absorption of iron.
Glutathione (GSH) is a tripeptide compound formed by the condensation of glutamic acid, cysteine and glycine via peptide bond, which is widely distributed in animal liver, blood, yeast and wheat germ, and also in a small amount in various vegetable and other plant tissues. Glutathione has unique physiological function, which is called longevity factor and anti-aging factor. Japan began to develop and apply in food in the 1950s, and now it has been widely used in the field of food processing. The research of glutathione in China is still in its infancy. There are four production methods of glutathione, including solvent extraction, chemical synthesis, microbial fermentation and enzyme synthesis. Among them, the production of glutathione by microbial cells or enzymes has great potential. At present, the production of glutathione is mainly by yeast fermentation